Findan was an Irishman from Leinster. The Nordmanni took his sister. Findan’s father gave him a satchel of coins and instructions that he was to go the raiders and bring her back.  Joined by some friends he set out to find the Nordmanni.  Unfortunately, they found him first, slaughtered his companions, clapped him in irons and chains and hauled him to a ship, perhaps a forerunner of the Skuy just offshore. At some point he escaped, making his way to his father.  The Nordmanni came and set the house on fire, slaying Findan’s father as he emerged from the flames. Findan was recaptured and sold and sold and sold again and again.

And so he found himself in chains on a wet, cold, violent ship bound for the Orkneys.

 ~ ~ ~

Although the first mention of the Irish capital may date to the times of Ptolemy, it is more likely that when the Vikings first sailed into the Duiblinn (“Black Pool”) at the confluence of the rivers Poddle and Liffey there was nothing there but a rich forest and natural shelter from the storms that frequented the Irish Sea.  And so in the 8th Century they founded Dyflin on the site and set to trading with the miniscule settlement of Áth Cliath further up the Liffey.  For the next three centuries the Norse ruled Viking Dublin, making it an economic powerhouse.  At the center of this early “Celtic Tiger” economy was the trade in thralls, or slaves.

viking dublin

Detailed contemporary sources on the Dublin slave markets are slim.  While frequently mentioned throughout texts from the time, the market itself is treated cursorily.

Slavery in Ireland and the British Isles predated the arrival of the Vikings. Ireland was not particularly well endowed with natural resources.  The only export goods the island produced were cattle, trees and people. After the Roman Empire collapsed in Britain slave raids along the coasts of the isles came with increasing frequency. These raids lasted until Britain stabilized politically after about two-hundred years but the Irish that had been enslaved bore children who likewise grew up into a life of slavery and children were regularly sold into slavery in the hunger years.

The Viking arrival just accentuated a system that was firmly in place.

It wasn’t only raiding for treasure and goods that brought the Vikings along the coasts of Ireland.  Small numbers of captives were taken at first, suggesting that there may not have been a large slave-market but at some point, they took to major slaving operations. Contemporary accounts have many mentions of raids where extremely large numbers of prisoners were taken.  Some historians have suggested that many of these could have been geill, or hostages that would be freed for a ransom.  The accounts however, refer to them as brat, simply ‘captives’.

Slaves were distinguished by size, strength and attitude, or where they came from  “foreigner who do not know Irish,” or “women from over the great sea” were the types of things written to describe the merchandise.

Over its centuries of existence the institution of slavery based in Dublin took on a multitude of shapes and forms, reasons and mechanisms.  There were even times when the slaves were freed such as in 980 when the King of Meath freed all the Irish slaves in Dublin after the Battle of Tara.  Brian Boru and Mael Sechnaill did the same thing a few decades later after the institution had grown large again.

As evidence of the far reach of the Dublin slave trade researchers in the past few years have found that a certain portion of the population of Scotland can trace their ancestry to particular Saharan tribes whose ancestors came to Spain with the Moorish conquest and who were then captured in slave raids on Spain, taken to Dublin and sold as slaves to Scottish landowners sometime in the 9th Century.

viking dublinAnother recent DNA study suggests that many of the slaves were shipped Iceland. They were also sent east into the wealthier and more sophisticated empires of the Muslims and the Byzantines in exchange for silks and coins.

The Irish periodically took on the Vikings but by the 11th century the Irish had all turned on themselves in costly battles for a theoretical national throne.  The ancient Irish tradition of raiding your neighbors to steal cattle became something more; a hunt for humans and Viking mercenaries tinged the raids with a terror that hadn’t quite existed before.  It was in these wars that massive number of prisoners were taken and moved from the interior to the coasts for sale – and particularly to Dublin. These struggles for the kinship were fought mainly on the sea by large fleets rented or bought from abroad.  At one point, the King of Dublin acquired a fleet that was rented out for the price of thousands of cattle and hundreds of slaves, all driven into the city as payment.

Flaithbertach and his men were particularly well known for specifically targeting his enemies for en masse enslavement.  Hundreds were take from the Cenel Conaill and the Ulaid.  Great slave raiding parties ranged across the Loch Oughter area in 1109 and then Dal Cais and others in 1115 and 1116.

There are also stories of independent warriors funding their fighting lifestyle through the import of slaves to Dublin.

In any case, at the turn of the millennium Dublin was the main market center for slaves in Western Europe providing labor and concubines from the British Isles to Scandinavia and even into Muslim Spain. While there are few and scant descriptions of what the slave markets in Dublin were actually like, they could not have been anything but hellish.

By early in the 12th Century the Irish slave trade was on the decline.  Social and religious pressures were halting the practice throughout Western Europe. In 1102 England outlawed most types of human trafficking, massively disrupting the Dublin trade. Still, it took another one hundred years or more for the trade to definitively end.

The Irish coasts weren’t free of slave raids for many hundreds of years more. The village of Baltimore in County Cork was attacked and burned by Algerian pirates from North Africa in the summer of 1631. The entire population of the village was placed in shackles and taken away to a life of slavery in Africa.  It is said that only three of them ever saw Ireland again.

And then came the English…enslaving literally millions of Irish from the days of James II until fairly recent times.

The Irish haven’t exactly had it easy.

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12 comments

  1. Comment by ron hagg

    ron hagg Reply April 24, 2013 at 9:01 am

    Once again I’ve learned more. Thanks

    • Comment by Jim O'Donnell

      Jim O'Donnell Reply April 24, 2013 at 10:34 am

      I’m glad to hear that Ron. Researching this, I found I could write a whole book on the subject. It is fascinating. But lord…when you think of what it must have been like….thousands of people in chains, beaten and abused…standing out in that cold mist. Really it must have been a horrific scene there in the Dublin yards.

  2. Comment by Ellen Girardeau Kempler

    Ellen Girardeau Kempler Reply April 24, 2013 at 12:55 pm

    Thanks for a well-researched history piece. Sounds like you are contemplating a trip to Ireland! The history is short but complicated. If you go, make sure to take the history walk that leaves from the gates of Trinity College. I didn’t have a chance to take it, but heard rave reviews from others. The Irish have had it tougher than many–maybe that’s why they’ve built such a strong storytelling and musical tradition. Also, they seem to have more blessings than any other culture!

    • Comment by Jim O'Donnell

      Jim O'Donnell Reply April 25, 2013 at 9:27 am

      Ellen, I’ve ALWAYS wanted to go to Ireland but I have it in my mind that I cant possibly go unless it is for a month or more at minimum. So I may have to wait for a bit. Do you mean that Irish history is short? In fact, I find it quite deep. I will be sure to take the tour if and when I get there….WHEN I get there….and I agree. I think that alot of the ethnic groups that have deeply suffered have developed some of the more amazing cultures. There must be something in that pain that allows for reaching so deep inside.

  3. Comment by Petra Lonowski

    Petra Lonowski Reply May 29, 2013 at 11:11 am

    What an awesome post! I had no idea this happened to this extent. Thanks for educating me 😉

    • Comment by Jim O'Donnell

      Jim O'Donnell Reply May 30, 2013 at 8:00 pm

      Crazy stuff isnt it? I dont think many people really know about it. Thanks for coming by!

  4. Comment by Its All Bee

    Its All Bee Reply July 29, 2013 at 11:32 am

    It seems only a stones throw away and yet I still haven't been to Ireland. I never knew it had that much history to it. You learn something new everyday!

  5. Comment by Jim O'Donnell

    Jim O'Donnell Reply July 31, 2013 at 12:57 pm

    I havent been either in fact. Its a shame. I have so much family there and know the history so well. One of these days.

  6. Comment by Richard Riley

    Richard Riley Reply December 3, 2014 at 11:06 am

    James II was a Scottish Stuart …. but dont let facts get in the way.

    • Comment by Jim O'Donnell

      Jim O'Donnell Reply December 9, 2014 at 12:31 pm

      Please explain how that fact impacts the rest of the article. Did I claim otherwise? It doesnt appear so. In that case, why the rude comment?

  7. Comment by Kenny V

    Kenny V Reply June 28, 2015 at 8:49 pm

    Jim, do you know anything about a law passed in 1681 that made it illegal for black slaves to breed with female white “slaves”? Did they breed to sell their offspring for more money?

    What original sources can you quote about Irish slavery in the British colonies?

    Thanks much,

    Kenny

    • Comment by Jim O'Donnell

      Jim O'Donnell Reply June 29, 2015 at 12:55 pm

      Kenny, I have seen reference to that 1681 law in passing while doing other research. I dont know much more about it at the moment. The issue of Irish slaves in the colonies is a complicated one. I’ve looked at a wide range of sources on that subject and find many conflicting viewpoints. After the Tudors retook Ireland they had a big problem as the Irish population was quite large. Many, many were shipped overseas but the question becomes HOW and under WHAT conditions were they shipped. And in this it is all over the place. Clearly, some were out and out slaves. But it is unclear if it was slavery of the chattel variety practiced on blacks in the southern USA. For others it was indentured servitude. Others were convicted of minor crimes and sent as prisoners who later gained freedom when their term was up. So there were a wide variety of ways Irish were ripped from their homes and sent to the colonies.

      These varying types of forced labour has brought about heated discussion on the issue with some claiming the Irish were the origional slaves and others saying that calling indentured servents “slaves” diminishes the suffering Africans endured. Personally, I dont think it does. What the English did to Ireland was horrific and while there were many ways that Irish people were forced out of their country and into conditions of forced labour, for a large number of them it was out and out pure slavery. That doesnt in my mind diminish to horrors visited on African slaves. Below are some sources I’ve read including one that says that there werent really any Irish slaves. Take a look:

      http://www.ewtn.com/library/HUMANITY/SLAVES.TXT
      http://www.academia.edu/9475964/The_Myth_of_Irish_Slaves_in_the_Colonies
      http://www.rhettaakamatsu.com/irishslaves.htm
      http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl?md=read;id=1638
      http://www.irishcentral.com/roots/history/irish-the-forgotten-white-slaves-says-expert-john-martin-188645531-237793261.html

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